Rule, J. Theory and Society, These characteristics are 1 the globalization of information, 2 the globalization of communication, 3 the globalization of control technologies, and 4 the collecting and using of information about every aspect of collective and individual life, which in turn also penetrates and shapes that collective and individual life. These characteristics are, according to Krohn, related to societies that are massively influenced by computer-.
In this paper, it will be demonstrated, however, that these can also be characteristics of a society in which information networks are not computer-based. For the sake of clarity, however, it is useful to consider what meanings are adopted in the construction of the arguments of this paper.
Globalization of information is interpreted as the simultaneous existence of particular pieces of information in multiple places worldwide. Globalization of communication, then, is interpreted as the existence of global communication networks that make globalized information possible. Krohn, W. The International Encyclopedia of the Social. It is important to note that Krohan makes a distinction between an information society and a knowledge society; this. Letter to Juan Schuurman.
Zeeuws Archief, Middelburg. It is important to note that globalization of information and globalization of communication are not necessarily.
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World history distinguishes itself from social history in that it typically sees ordinary people as victims, their experiences not worth of attention, and their agency as practically nonexistent. This paper looks at globalizations, i. This means, rather than trying to fit an agent or company and the role of information into a larger narrative, it will focus on a particular cycle of information in the early modern period. A particular cycle of information can contribute to the deconstruction of a master narrative, such as the idea of the information society as distinctive characteristic of our age.
Furthermore, this approach allows for a focus on a limited amount of sources, thereby making the vast archives suitable for. Frank Webster, who has studied the different scholarly approaches to information societies, recognizes five different ways of defining the information society that have shaped the historiography of the concept: technological, economic, occupational, spatial, and cultural. In the spatial approach, the major emphasis is on space and information networks. For instance, a thing can be invented in two places at. Latour, B. Cambridge: Cambridge. Stearns, P.
World History Connected, 2. The island offered little natural resources due to irregular rainfall; it was impossible to grow sufficient food there, let alone coffee, sugar, or cacao. It was situated in Middelburg, Zeeland, in the Dutch Republic. The company was active both within Europe and internationally, i. The set of sources is comprising of four letters. Frost, J. The History Teacher, Christian, D. Journal of World History, The first class, which included the west coast of Africa and Essequibo, were the areas in which the WIC had a monopoly over all trade.
In the second class, the rest of the patent areas, it was allowed for private individuals and companies to trade, provided that recognition was paid to the WIC. The resolution included a proposal for open trade in all colonies, but preserved the recognition that would have to be paid to the WIC. The resolution was sent to the States of Zeeland via the city council of Flushing.
At the same time, merchants in Middelburg were working on a similar resolution. Although there is no proof for cooperation between the merchants from Flushing and Middelburg, it is unlikely that it was a coincidence. In , the States of Zeeland expressed their support for exemption of the coast of Africa in the States-General. Finally, the patent was extended on 8 August , but under very different conditions.
The rest of the coast areas in Africa were now open to trade for private individuals and companies, although they still had to pay recognition to the WIC. In , the Gold Coast became open to all people in the Dutch Republic as well, in a revision of the. Globalization of Information The first characteristic that Krohn attributes to an information society is the globalization of information. Although Krohn does not elaborate on the meaning of this notion, it can be interpreted as the presence of information regarding a certain event, place, or people that is no longer tied to a specific place; rather it can exist in multiple places around the globe simultaneously.
When the second WIC was established in , the States-General awarded the company a patent for trading in certain areas. The patent would last 26 years, after which the States-General had, each time, the opportunity to extend it for an additional thirty years. The patent included the trade in Africa south of the tropic of cancer, America, and the islands in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans between New-Guinea and the Cape of Good Hope. The areas. He also explains that it depends on the origin of the slaves, e.
It appears that Schuurman had not read the details of the extension, because he suggests that the MCC should stay longer to ensure a good return cargo, even though this was per regulation prohibited. He also elaborates on the kinds of return cargo that can be expected. For instance, details regarding the content and consequences of the extension, details regarding what type of slave is most profitable, and details regarding possible return cargo. Therefore, the. This is not very surprising, as it is obvious that merchants from Zeeland — some of whom were probably affiliated with the MCC — played an important role in the lobby against the extension of the monopoly.
In other words, the information was globalized. The board enclosed papers that included the details of the extension. The Board asks Schuurman for advice regarding the profitability of such an enterprise; they wonder whether the slaves could be sold profitably, and they ask whether there is a good chance that they would find a profitable return cargo. They also emphasize that, if the journey. MCC was operating in a society in which information was globalized, which is one of the characteristics that Krohn attributes to an information society.
The ship arrived in Middelburg on 29 March ; presumably, the voyage thus took between seven and eight weeks. This letter was written on 4 March It contains a copy of the first letter, apparently to ensure that the information in the first letter arrived in Middelburg properly as well.
The date that this letter arrived in. Globalization of Communication The second characteristic of an information society is the globalization of communication. In Europe, during the eighteenth century, mail was delivered by post-riders as well as packet boats.
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Continental correspondence had thus been institutionalized in a way that is somewhat similar to the postal services that emerged a century later. However, long-distance packet boats that linked Europe and overseas colonies did not appear until the late eighteenth century; before that there was no institutionalization of international correspondence. MCC 88 31 August The inventory can be accessed online through:.
Donsbach, Wolfgang ed. Perhaps this is because these captains were already perceived as trust-worthy by the board of directors; after all, they were already awarded the responsibility for an entire ship. Thirdly, it demonstrates that the MCC in Middelburg was corresponding with captains who were on an expedition to the Caribbean. In other words, the correspondence existed in a sophisticated, yet most likely internal, system of mail delivery which was aimed at speeding up the process of delivery and intensifying contact between Middelburg and the captains on the other side of the globe.
Thus, the MCC was operating within a system of sophisticated global communication. Therefore, one of the characteristics that Krohn attributes to an information society — the globalization of communication — was present in the society in which the MCC operated. Unfortunately it is unknown by whom and when the letter was delivered in Middelburg. Firstly, it strongly indicates that the MCC had instituted an internal system of communication, i. This is not surprising, as nothing like an international mail supervision yet existed.
Globalization of Control Technologies The third characteristic of an information society is the globalization of control technologies. Knowledge about something — an event, a place, or people — can come into existence in two ways. Second of all, it can come into existence when someone else who has already seen it has brought it back to us; it thus comes into existence through someone else. This process is called a cycle of accumulation. A cycle of accumulation, then, allows us to gain knowledge about things that are distant. Latour argues that bringing home distant things to a center the center of accumulation allows for an agent to act on these things even though they are distant.
Thus a cycle of accumulation which flows towards a center of accumulation enables people in that center to act at a distance. The following example is a case in which the MCC was acting at a distance; this example thus demonstrates that the MCC was operating in a world where control technologies were globalized — an aspect of an information society. The ship was taken to Cartagena. Schuurman explains that he fears that the ships were taken by the Spaniards. By then, the MCC had received the information — the source of which is unclear — that Geleynse had been captured in front of the coast of Caracas, and had been taken to Cadiz in Spain.
See the note in the inventory of the MCC archive, Inv. There, he had been imprisoned. Later in the letter, the board asks Schuurman to exercise all his influence toward preventing the Spanish officer from receiving physical punishment, in order to prevent the Spanish from doing the same to Geleynse.
He explains that the treatment of the Spanish officer has been good; the doors of his prison were open with only one guard in front. The MCC is faced with a problem, namely. This maltreatment is an event that is distant.
Through transatlantic correspondence the treatment of the Spanish officer is brought home to Middelburg. The question then remains whether this collecting and using information also penetrated and shaped all aspects of company life and acitivities. One way of demonstrating that information penetrated and shaped early modern life, is to focus on a particular kind of information.
These newsletters would often evolve into printed newspapers. These newspapers were often economically profitable; as a result, a political news business was created that shaped commercial and individual life, and was thus close to the centre of early modern life. This collection and usage is, then, also a force that penetrates and shapes all aspects of that collective and individual life. Thereafter, one particular type of information in the case study — political information — will be considered, in order to examine how close this information was to the center of early modern life.
First, a reflection on record keeping in the MCC suggests that the company was keeping records on virtually all its activities. Although the decisions were made by the board of directors, daily functioning was guided by an office. This office was led by a chief accountant, who was supported by a lower-rank accountant and a treasurer, as well as several clerks. All of these occupations are strongly related to the recording and processing of information. It seems, however, unlikely that the MCC succesfully exercised their influence to get Geleynse out of prison.
The MCC. Geleynse was still in prison there. Unfortunately the handwriting in this letter makes it illegible to me. There is no evidence. Edited by Dooley, B. Considering the vastness of the MCC archive and the many records it contains strongly implies that the company was collecting and using information about virtually all aspects of their activity.
Furthermore, there existed a sophisticated, global communication network that allowed, for instance, captains who were trading in the Caribbean to correspond with their superiors in Zeeland. Moreover, centers of accumulation, for instance a private company like the MCC, were able to exert influence on the other side of the world — they could act at a distance — because of the existence of global information and communication networks. Also, information networks from previous eras, such as the postal service, the telegram, and the telephone, also had profound impact on much economic, social, and political life in their respective times.
This conclusion can be explained in two ways. First, it can be argued that the early modern period was characterized by the existence of information societies, comparable in a basic sense to those in industrial and post-industrial societies. In this sense, it can still be true that industrial and post-industrial societies are information societies, whereas the early modern period was not. Conclusion This paper has demonstrated that, indeed, information, communication, and control technologies were already globalized through information networks in the early modern world; these phenomena had profound impact on collective and individual life.
In other. If the latter position is taken, research opportunities arise for different approaches. Perhaps one of the other approaches to the information society that Webster recognizes — technological, economic, occupational, or cultural — are better suited to reveal a significant aspect in our society related to information that was not present in the early modern world.
While leaving the question about which one of these conclusions is more respectful of the historical evidence open to further research, another conclusion can be drawn: combining a social history and a world history approach to contribute to the deconstruction of a master narrative, in this case a narrative regarding information societies, is an insightful method for a skeptical historian or social scientist. International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences.
How to Follow Scientists and Engineers through Society. Zeeuws Archief,Middelburg. Learn more. If you have previously obtained access with your personal account, Please log in. If you previously purchased this article, Log in to Readcube. Log out of Readcube. Click on an option below to access.
Log out of ReadCube. Neither focus adequately frames the ability of African Americans to shape public space as the white middle class returns to central cities. The legal and political legacies of civil rights and black power struggles—combined with consumer demand black culture sells —force them to involve black entrepreneurs, professionals and artists in placemaking.
This placemaking subordinates the black urban poor, even as it incorporates their street cultures. The contradictions of placemaking shape possibilities for resistance, as shown in mundane subversions and street protests that use the downtown spotlight to call for social justice citywide. This analysis contributes to research on public space at a time when new movements are challenging public order in the financial core of US cities. Volume 40 , Issue 4. The full text of this article hosted at iucr.
If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. However, no other Latino community has faced the discriminatory and unjust effects of U.
However, had it not been for the sacrifices of Salvadoran immigrants, El Salvador would have faced even greater negative effects of U. Without their sacrifices and contributions to American society, Salvadorans would not have later gained recognition in the U. Though these acts of recognition do not directly relieve the issue of illegality, they succeed at recognizing Salvadorans as victims of U.
Works Cited Abrego, Leisy J. His experiences since early adolescence growing up in Sacramento, his ever expansive family, and his travels around Central America have fueled his passion for writing as a medium of expression. Mateo has written a handful of short stories, some delving into simple family struggles, others factious stories of San Francisco.
Impassioned by drug illiteracy and mental health issues in America, he has become an advocate for change to the status quo regarding drug use and the demonization of drug users. He wants more empathic addiction treatments and hopes writing about it can strike at the hearts of readers to help influence that change. The amount of evidence and the thoroughness of Mateo Mayorga's investigation is relentless and quite frankly, brilliant. Mayorga shows how shifting medical attitudes, false claims about addiction, pharmaceutical lobbyists, and the DEA all combined to create the opioid crisis facing America today.
Moghe states that in Bayer Co. Bayer Co. Intravenous heroin use grew rapidly among those previously addicted to morphine due to the intense high that heroin provided. However, though the opioid wild west of the late s and early s was profitable, in , the government passed the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act, which imposed tariffs and taxes on importers, producers, and sellers of opioids and put economic pressure on heroin and morphine. The Harrison Narcotics Tax Act set into motion a new precedent: by the s, physicians actively avoided prescribing opioids due to their addictive nature. Although two new drugs, Percocet and Vicodin, hit the market during the s, physicians were initially wary of prescribing opioids for patients.
The two researchers, Dr. The study by Jick and Porter looked at 11, patients who had undergone some form of opioid treatment. Combating pain became a key factor in hospital care and was enforced by many hospitals around the country. These circumstances provided a perfect justification for opening the floodgates on opioid prescriptions.
Considering the historical development from cautious opioid prescription to the exploding opioid crisis, it is clear that a third variable in this equation led to the attitude shift towards opioids. This third variable is comprised of the pharmaceutical companies that purposefully misconstrue the addictive potential of their opioid-based drugs. These companies do not care for the livelihoods of millions of American lives, as they flood communities full of highly addictive opioids without any repercussions from federal agencies like the Drug Enforcement Administration DEA.
Furthermore, pharmaceutical companies have infiltrated the United State Congress through aggressive lobbying techniques. Lobbyists are essentially bribing representatives and senators to push pro-pharmaceutical legislation. Not only have they influenced our legislators, put in power to serve the interest of the people; they have also bought out ex-DEA agents to further preclude any possibility of legal repercussions from the DEA.
Yet their schemes reach further still by utilizing ex-DEA attorneys to avoid judicial repercussions and foist blame on innocent victims affected by over-prescription of these addictive drugs. One of the most divisive tactics utilized by the drug industry is the overwhelming deceitful use of faulty medical studies and drug-industry-sponsored research to influence increased prescriptions of opioids. So how did this drug become the such a market success? According to Raddan Keefe, Purdue Pharma spent millions of dollars funding research and paying doctors to sell the idea that opioid addiction was an overblown concern.
Examples of Purdue Pharma outright lying are they did not conduct clinical studies of the addictive prosperities or possible potential to abuse OxyContin. This led to withdrawal symptoms of patients told to take OxyContin twice a day. These withdrawal symptoms were the precursor to the opioid crisis, and no one expected to see it explode. The withdraw symptoms caused by the prescribed misuse of OxyContin lead to addiction, and once the patient is weaned off their medication, there is nowhere else to go to alleviate their symptoms.
Kristof goes on to point out is how the drug industry used addiction to sell more medication. So, how did they get the legal justification and support that we see today? Pervasive lobbying and the use of puppet public interest companies are to blame. There are on average two lobbyists employed by pharmaceutical companies per member of Congress, according to McGreal. Almost all our representatives and senators have received money from pharmaceutical campaign contributions that ultimately ensure influence on how pro-pharma legislation is created, even in the face of this epidemic.
The amount of power pharmaceutical companies wield from lobbying allows them to sell cheap opioids, of various types, with little competition from generic providers or any fear of repercussion from federal agencies like the DEA. In some cases, lobbying is more dangerous than just lying to medical professionals since it gives the legal precedent to continue to drown communities with millions of opioids with the applause of the U. The power held by these pharmaceutical companies allows them to defend themselves against any attempt at regulation.
More lobbying organizations, such as the Pain Forum, spent millions of dollars to shoot down any legislation from the Caucus of Prescription Abuse. It is very apparent that these lobbying companies, their coffers kept full by big pharmaceutical companies, maintain the status quo of drug legislation. These companies are willing to spend billions of dollars just so they can continue to waterboard the American people with unnecessary opioids.
This is the reason why the opioid crisis has grown so destructive: these companies keep the status quo while spreading propaganda on the benefits of over-prescription. The result is a positive feedback loop of prescription and addiction. These destructive lobbying tactics have also directly caused the dismantling of the DEA, through the divisive persuasion of former DEA agents and attorneys.
Companies were fined for not inspecting suspicious shipments of opioids, as required under the Controlled Substances Act. These fines set a legal, and financial, need to halt further DEA encroachment into the opioid industry. These companies utilized their most powerful asset: money. Around , according to Whitaker, parades of DEA attorneys began to take up high-paying positions defending pharmaceutical companies against DEA fines. Around 46 lawyers, detectives, and high-ranking supervisors from the DEA, as well as 32 special attorneys from the division that is responsible for regulating the drug industry, made this transition from the public to the private sector.
These ex-DEA agents and lawyers are dangerous for the state of the United States since their insider knowledge could ultimately lead to the destruction of the DEA. The best ex-DEA attorneys were well-versed in the weaker legal tactics used by the DEA and this knowledge allowed them to halt further fines while pharmaceutical companies, with the help of ex-DEA agents, lobbied Congress to pass a new bill. The act ensured that the DEA could not utilize diversion tactics to freeze suspicious shipments of opioids around the nation.
Enforcement by the DEA is impossible under this bill, meaning that millions of opioids can be shipped out to communities. Pharmaceutical companies are responsible for the opioid crisis, as they legally saturate communities with these drugs with impunity, and it is almost impossible to halt the opioid pill floodgates now that they are open. Doing so creates a justification for pharmaceutical companies to shift the blame onto those addicted to opioids, in turn making combating them impossible.
When faced with criticism, pharmaceutical shift blame to those most affected by over-prescription, claiming that the addicted are responsible for their own actions. The defense all pharmaceutical companies employ when faced with lawsuits from individual people is to point out that those who are addicted or have died from opioid dependence are misusing their drugs and obtaining them illegally.
In actuality, these people are average people who fell into the trap of opioid dependency. Given this information, how can one fight back against the pharmaceutical companies who have caused this crisis? It is very apparent that the opioid crisis has affected the lives of millions of American while pharmaceutical companies profit from the pain of these individuals. So how do we, as a nation, combat these multibillion-dollar pharmaceutical companies?
On an individual level, the easiest action is to become educated on this subject and have a dialogue with people about how pharmaceutical companies are to blame for this crisis. Dialogue and discussion are the first step in sparking resistance within people, providing the necessary seed that allows for change to occur. Individuals must also understand the proper use of opioids when prescribed to them for surgery or chronic pain because they are dangerously addictive. A cautious and educated approach is needed for people to understand the seriousness of these powerful drugs.
Besides drug education and discussion, people need to consider the contributions our representatives receive and ask the hard questions when they support suspicious legislation like the Ensuring Patient Affairs and Effective Drug Enforcement Act. Our representatives should represent the voice of the people, not the voice of the pharmaceutical company. Though these companies are leviathans of influence, it is possible to make our voices heard. We can use our voting powers to elect officials who care for the lives of their constituents.
The muffled voices of those suffering under the pain of opioid addiction are just starting to be heard, and it is our duty to amplify them. Works Cited Frances, M. Back to Top. Ruth Kopiko The Transcendent Aesthetic. She is an English Education and Linguistics major. She understands that language and culture influence each other, and she is enthusiastic to apply her knowledge about language in a manner that reconciles cultural divides.
She is curious to learn about foreign customs and traditions in order to grow more compassionate toward others. She enjoys venturing out to explore different areas of San Francisco that she has not been to before. However, her frequented visits to the beach have made it her favorite place to go to relax.
She says that the best part about going to the beach is sitting along the shoreline and gazing out to where the ocean and sky connect. These observations solidified her beliefs of humanity's humble relationship to nature. She seeks to find the everyday beauty that surrounds her. This class was themed around how we represent the natural world, and I like how Ruth analyzes the representation of nature in print and visual texts produced in different times and places. In these texts and film clips, nature entices and allures humans.
These various accounts of individuals experience a deeper connection to their environment. Later, the speaker shows a reverent attitude towards celestial objects. Here, the speaker seems to be in awe of nature; they are intrigued by the night sky. These lines leave the reader with an open-ended thought, concluding with the pensiveness of the speaker. There is a sudden attraction towards nature from the speaker. The daffodils act as surprise visitors to the previously lonely speaker. This accompaniment directly connects the speaker to nature, the flowers, and it sparks the transcendence of this particular circumstance.
A faraway presence limits the speakers from being able to truly relate to nature. This estranged existence causes the individual to wrestle with their understanding of nature. However, the incredible vastness of nature, such as the starry night sky, intrigues the speakers as they continue to observe in wonder. Their curiosity drives their interest and fascination.
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A novel approach like this, which reaches past ordinary limitations, provides the reader with the conclusion that there is a transcendental theme found in these poems. There is a scene when the protagonist Jake Sully flies with the mountain banshees, which are visually appealing creatures. These blue and purple-hued flying creatures are only able to be mastered by one individual; their unique connection is made from a special neural link. The clip shows Jake successfully making the link with the mountain banshee, and they complete their first ride together.
Here, Jake is depicted as content and relieved; he seems to be sincerely enjoying himself while flying on the creature. The background music for this scene also heightens the significance of their newly established relationship. Dramatic crescendos highlight the moments when Jake and the banshee seem to bond the most.
Jake takes in the beauty of nature from the vantage point of riding his mountain banshee. The neural link connection between Jake and the mountain banshee creature later leads to his experience and appreciation of nature. A film clip where Doctor Zhivago and his family are stuck indoors, because of the snowy weather, depicts the protagonist peering out of a frosted window to look at the barren wintry trees outside. He is shown in a warmer landscape, specifically in a field of daffodils.
This depicts his admiration of nature. Throughout the duration of the scene, the music grows louder and this implies the significance of the moment. This person offers him fulfillment, similar to how warm weather breathes life into hibernating plants. This scene portrays Doctor Zhivago reminiscing about a positive connection he had experienced with nature, which fostered his blissful admiration.
The transcendence found in these examples display how an individual must go beyond their head-knowledge to find a remarkable connection to nature. These art forms highlight how the beauty of nature has the power to influence individuals. The film clips both include transcendent motifs when showing the protagonists enjoying their time surrounded by nature. After a unique bond with nature, the speakers allude to a greater power as they observe nature in admiration. The vastness of this transcendence sparks the curiosity in individuals and motivates them to be in wonder and awe.
It is this transcendent power that is worth noting, as it shows readers that they are also capable of experiencing similar moments to marvel at the aesthetic qualities of nature. Whitman, Walt. Wordsworth, William. Najah Miller Mass Incarceration in America. Najah is first and foremost a dancer, having trained for five years at Oakland School for the Arts. She teaches dance to kids ages seven to fifteen, and absolutely loves it. She hopes she can continue to be a role model, especially to African American youth.
Najah has always loved to write, and has found it to be a great release and a way to express herself about issues that concern her. She synthesizes her rigorous research with her own critical perspective on the problem to create a dialogue with prominent voices from the field, while productively anticipating and addressing counterarguments. As discussed and practiced in our English community, she enters the academic conversation on the consequences of this markedly pressing issue to craft an effective, persuasive argument on a self-chosen social in justice topic of personal interest.
Her compelling, conversational style combines with appropriately situated engagement with evidential sources to present a strong, thought-provoking argument. Perhaps most impressive is that, within the page length boundaries of the assignment, she offers concise and relevant historical context for her audience to consider the severity of this important and topical social problem.
It is the modern way for this society to be racist, destroy Black and Brown communities, and tear down Black people. Forman Jr. Mass incarceration is similar to Jim Crow because it specifically targets people of color, mainly men, and it has ruined opportunities for newly released prisoners, such as the right to vote, access to government services, and access to decent jobs and housing. Therefore, the analogy is perfect. The goal of speaking about the mass incarceration of Black men is not to discredit any other races and say that they are not of importance.
There is a significantly large difference between the rate of incarceration of Black people over White people in this society, especially when it comes to drug crimes. As an African American woman, I am going to focus on getting the word about my community out to my community, and anyone else that will listen. Well, first, what is Jim Crow? The Jim Crow Laws were racist laws put in place to discriminate against Black people. These laws kept Black people separate from White people, and affected their daily lives. Black people had to use different facilities, live in different neighborhoods, attend completely different schools, and much more.
These laws extended to schools, churches, housing, restrooms, jobs, hospitals, and more Alexander, Today, mass incarceration of African American men is considered the new Jim Crow because of the laws that keep a felon separate from the rest of society, just like how Black people were kept separate under the Jim Crow Laws. Sounds familiar, right?
Michelle Alexander explains how we have come to this mass incarceration of Black men. The United States has the highest rate of incarceration in the world, and imprisons a larger percent of its Black population than South Africa did during apartheid Alexander, 6.
This law and order rhetoric was used by White officials in opposition to the Civil Rights Movement. There is not one specific reason why crime began to spread, but while civil rights were being labeled a threat to law and order, crime shot up. Throughout the s riots broke out in urban communities, street crime rose, and homicides doubled Martin Luther King. Black people were being harassed and abused by police, and still had to abide by Jim Crow Laws; the anger and pressure in Black communities was high. White conservatives and officials used this time to really crack down on Black communities, and did not distinguish between direct action tactics of civil rights activists, violence in inner cities, and traditional crimes When the drug war began, inner-city communities were suffering from an economic collapse.
Technological changes within the workplace affected the less educated and less skilled workers, which included mainly to African American men, leaving jobs for only the highly educated workers This decline in employment increased the incentive to sell drugs, mostly crack cocaine. Crack hit the streets in , leading to an increase in violence resulting from the anger and frustration of jobless individuals Black men were selling crack to help their families, as well as using crack to escape harsh realities, which resulted in dangerous and hostile actions such as fighting, shooting, stealing, and even killing.
In September , the Anti-Drug Abuse Act was signed, placing harsh penalties such as mandatory minimum sentences and more severe punishments for distribution of crack cocaine Black men are specifically seen as a threat to this society and the systematic oppressions that I have discussed so far proves that. Is it that Black men are too strong? Are they too intelligent? Do they have too much potential? The answer is yes, and I believe that truth scares society. I honestly do not know if there is a specific answer to why Black men have continued to endure the amount of oppression, harassment, and profiling that they have, but I believe fear has a lot to do with it.
The fear of what Black men can and will become makes this society only want to tear them down more. Black people having rights and prospering in this society is not wanted. Kalief Browder was sixteen when he was arrested for allegedly stealing a backpack in New York. He spent almost three years in Rikers Island, more than half of which was spent in solitary confinement.
He was a sophomore in high school, simply on his way home from a party when he was stopped by the police, and that is not even the worst of it. The documentary shows the horrible mistreatment Kalief endured while at Rikers Island. He was beaten by correction officers and other inmates, as well as starved in solitary confinement for an excessive amount of time.
During the three years Kalief was at Rikers nearly thirty of his court dates were rescheduled, for many different excuses. He refused to be labeled a felon, he refused to give in to a system wanting him to fail, he refused to give up, and he refused to further the stereotype. They kept him locked up and away from his life, and he did not deserve that.
Sadly, after being released with all charges dropped, Kalief took his own life. It affected him negatively in every way possible, and he took his life because of it. His story is an example of how Black men are profiled, how Black men can be wrongfully arrested, and serve time for a crime they did not commit; this is not new. Kalief just endured the worst of it. It has become a way to legally repeat history and it has got to stop.
Fathers, uncles, and brothers are taken away from their families every day, and given much longer sentences than our White counterparts. Once Black men are labeled as felons, their lives change dramatically. Imagine not being able to vote anymore, not being able to get a decent job, or have access to government services when you need it the most. These men and boys that are placed in prison for unnecessary amounts of time lose out on so much.
I believe once these men are released there should be a program in place to get them back on their feet. Works Cited Alexander, Michelle. His academic interests are narrowly focused on the impacts of climate change on forest ecology. His personal interests are broad but can be defined as an interest in the intersection of politics, science, society and identity. From he freelanced as a photojournalist and has published numerous photo essays and stories with publications such as the New York Times , The Intercept and The Guardian US.
Technocrats are scientists who have been appointed to lead executive agencies because of their technical expertise. Because they are appointed to their roles rather than elected, technocrats operate in a world between politics and science. Technocrats' power lies in their capacity to navigate the world of policy from an evidence-based perspective. In this paper, I analyze the influence of technocrats on modern American environmental politics. Weber describes several types of authority and the roles of government officials, elaborates on the process by which authoritative figures are selected, and illustrates the relationship between authoritative figures.
Fukuyama describes the process used to hire each member of the USFS, in which their technical merit formed the basis of their qualification for the position. Rather than hold an election in which citizens of the United States decide who should run the Forest Service, this agency has been staffed with the highest echelon of technical experts, a process which continues today Fukuyama What is a Technocrat?
A technocrat is defined as someone with a highly technical background and extensive experience in a field who occupies a position within a government as an appointed official at the top of their field Weber This method of selection remains relatively uniform within the administrative staff of a bureaucracy Weber In politics, the technocrat serves as a state official with their level of authority determined by technical knowledge and experience.
Why the Technocrat? In contrast, the legislative branch makes decisions collectively. However, a defining aspect of the legislative branch within the United States government is the complicated decision-making process that takes place. This becomes problematic when critical decisions must be made, and this has become increasingly common in modern times Mann Decision-making is expedited in the case of the technocrat as the sole decision-maker for a regulatory agency like the Environmental Protection Agency or National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
Regulations like those on deep-water oil drilling, fisheries, US Forest Reserves, endangered species or major industries such as oil, gas and coal would be difficult to implement within the necessary timeframe if left up to Congress.
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The benefits of this system lie in the role of knowledge of the appointed technical experts. The appointed official with the technical understanding of a given issue can establish a pattern of technically plausible solutions, and while the elected official may have some power over the law establishing body, the official with technical knowledge and ability to solve the issues at hand will be better suited to set effective policy.
Because elected officials often operate based on the feelings of the people they represent, the power of government is limited. This is helpful to democracy but harmful to effective policy-making. Technocrats, on the other hand, have been appointed to their position by the president based on their ability to perform in a technically proficient manner. The ability of a technocrat to gather evidence and prove their theories serves to reinforce their power Weber When Congress fails to pass or even introduce legislation to protect the environment, the EPA can set regulations to do so.
When a new chemical is produced and threatens to destroy the environment, the EPA can act to classify and regulate that chemical. Technocrats have demonstrated that their expertise in environmental science is the best chance we have in addressing environmental degradation. That expertise explains why presidents listen to their Science Advisor and why Congress requests scientists to testify on the floors of the House and Senate to help them comprehend problems faced by the American people. The first Chief of the Forest Service, Gifford Pinchot, championed this method to demand autonomy from the complications of Congress Fukuyama His years of education and experience in the field led to his being appointed by President Theodore Roosevelt as first Chief of the Division of Forestry.
When the management of the forest was moved to the Department of Agriculture and the United States Forest Service was established, Pinchot was named chief Forest History. However, in January of , controversy erupted over the recently declared forest reserves in Washington. However, the night before the bill was signed into law, Pinchot and the president worked to establish 16 million more acres of reserves in this region, ensuring the indefinite protection of these fragile ecosystems. Roosevelt believed firmly in the role of experts in the conservation of natural resources.
In , Bennett persuaded Congress to create the first federal erosion experiment stations and, in , President Roosevelt championed the rhetoric of protecting the country from the threat of soil erosion. Bennett was appointed the head of the SES and spearheaded new projects in eroded regions that showed landowners the benefits involved in conservation NRCS Staff.
Dubridge as chairman of his Science Advisory Committee Bronk This act required that all governmental agencies complete Environmental Impact Statements EIS for any activity that could impact the human environment. In broad terms, the EPA is mandated with setting and enforcing pollution control standards and is required to base its decisions and policies on science.
For decades, Americans used lead-based paint in their homes, which led to thousands of reported illnesses. After Congress passed the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of , the EPA was charged with setting standards for generators and transporters of hazardous waste. The act established the Office of Science and Technology Policy OSTP within the Office of the President whose primary function is to provide advice on the scientific aspects of issues that require the attention of the highest levels of government.
Up until this point, presidents would form and disband their science and technology advisory councils, thus leaving a path of inconsistency and impermanence. Once the OSTP was made part of legislation, it imbued a lasting importance by ensuring the presence of sound, scientific analysis in all future administrations Sargent This committee consists of representatives from a variety of scientific agencies, such as the EPA and Department of Energy.
The requirement to join this Committee is that each member must be a high-ranking official of their department or agency; they must be technocrats by definition USGCRP. After the appointment of Dr. Jane Lubchenco as head of the administration, NOAA made several significant strides, among them their response to the Deepwater Horizon Spill in , after which they immediately launched research programs to understand the disaster more fully Samenow The results of research conducted by NOAA on the use of dispersants helped the administration define the risks and trade-offs of using chemical dispersants in response to oil spills Helton While their scientists already suspected that some of the trade-offs of using chemical dispersants include spreading the oil deep into the water column, where it could potentially harm other marine life, their research made it clear that there were serious trade-offs and that each situation had to be approached carefully Helton Because of this research, the United States gained the ability to better respond to future spills and to set internal regulations on how to respond, as well as directly regulating the industry responsible for the spill.
Using the research gathered by NOAA, the Department of the Interior established an aggressive regime of regulations to restrict the possibility of a similar event taking place. These regulations include the addition of heightened well-design standards and the requirement for operators to prove access to blowout safety and control equipment prior to approval for deepwater operations Department of Interior. These regulations were a direct result of the level of technical expertise that allowed NOAA to conduct high-quality, scientific research in the wake of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.
The United States has lawyers in Congress who set and challenge environmental laws, but frequently these laws are influenced by the research and regulations put forth by technocrats who are better equipped to assess the impacts of policy. Society has become increasingly complicated over the roughly year history of the United States. Industrialization has fueled decades of economic growth, but it has also resulted in the prolonged squandering and use of our natural resources. These shortfalls, combined with the results provided by the few technocrats spread across the government, demonstrate the need for more technical approaches to our problems and how significant an impact these approaches can have on our environment.
On one hand, the threat of politicizing science has the potential to create a climate of doubt around the accuracies of science and disbelief of sound science. On the other hand, the accomplishments of science in government have been especially important in leading to sound environmental policy, independent of the political affiliations of the administration under which these technocrats serve. This makes clear the fact that modern environmental politics in America would not exist without the technocrats. References Bronk, Detlev W.
Inman, Mason. The Oracle of Oil. New York: W. Norton, Inc. She is graduating in May of and plans to pursue an MA in Linguistics in the following fall semester. The last of these resonated the most with Madeline, specifically the sections surrounding queer linguistics. As a gay woman, she has a special interest in further understanding the intricacies of language use in the gay community. Research such as this allows her to explore her interests in depth while also helping her to contribute her voice and research to the relatively small community of queer linguistics.
She demonstrates that these two YouTubers utilize different pitch patterns in the construction of two distinct lesbian identities -- femme and butch. Further, the two speakers exhibit different pitch range patterns across different speech contexts -- when introducing themselves and the particular vlog installment, as opposed to a stretch of speech that is particularly emotionally charged.
In highlighting the within-group variation among lesbian speakers, this work contributes an important and understudied perspective to sociolinguistic scholarship. Researchers in this area have frequently studied linguistic variation on the basis of gender, class, region, and other factors. More recently, sexual identity entered into this mix as well.
In doing so, I hope to shed light on this topic because it allows us to see how linguistic variables differ in a relatively understudied community. It also gives us an insight into the agency that these people undertake to align themselves more with one characteristic over another. The opposite is true for Ingrid, my femme speaker; she maintains a bigger range in her introduction and a smaller one when telling an emotional story. In this paper, I will first present research conducted by sociolinguists that explains why I have conducted my case study. In this section, I will discuss previous studies that demonstrate a gap in knowledge, which my paper will help fill.
Finally, I will conclude with a discussion on possible avenues for further research on lesbian speech, as well as sexuality-based speech in general. In order to do this, I have first looked up resources to define what exactly the differences are in speech perceived as masculine versus feminine. Another paper by Linneman looks at the occurrences of up-talk in male and female speakers, and this study finds that women are more prone to using uptalk, especially if they are young and white , p.
Studies such as these show that there are clear differences between stereotypically masculine and feminine speech. This information sets a background for variables that typically index a more masculine or feminine identity. These variables can be seen in two ways: performing and perceiving. As the above studies show, people associate certain speech patterns with certain gender identities. They may also choose to utilize other more feminine variables, such as uptalk, to index a feminine persona, for example.
Overall, these studies reveal that a higher pitch is associated with femininity, including pitch excursions that rise dramatically. It is important to note that Kulick does not specify whether the lesbians that she studied identified as more masculine or feminine; she instead discusses a general stereotype of lesbian speech. Again, stereotypes surrounding lesbian speech patterns surface.
Judging by these sources as well as my own personal experience, the lesbian archetype is a woman who is on the masculine side of the butch-femme spectrum; her swearing and relatively flat intonation typically do not align with the standard female speech that I discussed earlier. This research demonstrates that looking at this community as a whole, instead of in a more detailed way, can reinforce traditional stereotypes. Therefore, while these studies do focus specifically on lesbian speech styles, they are still very broad, and so I have endeavored to also find sources that look inside the lesbian community itself.
This study draws attention to the connections between butch and femme identities and male or female linguistic variables. For the purposes of my analysis, this point is useful because it shows that femmes tend to adopt linguistic styles associated with straight and feminine women, while butches do the opposite. Therefore, I am focusing on how lesbians who identify as more masculine or feminine index and perform these identities through their use of pitch.
We know some of the differences between stereotypical straight and lesbian women, as well as between masculine and feminine styles, but there is a surprising lack of sociolinguistic research within the lesbian community. My research regarding how femme and butch speakers perform their identities sheds light into the bricolage each speaker uses; modifying their clothing, hairstyles, speech, and other factors allows lesbian speakers to perform their identities. I chose YouTube as my specific platform because many, many vloggers use it to share their stories.
Ingrid is a year-old femme lesbian from Orange County, CA. Sarah is year-old a butch lesbian who is originally from Providence, RI but now resides in California.
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Both of my speakers are Caucasian and of western European descent. To maintain consistency, each video that I picked covered the same topics: shopping, fashion, and clothing. First, there is an introduction, where they introduce themselves and the topic of their video. For my purposes, I analyzed 10 intonational phrases IPs in the introduction section as well as in the body of each video, specifically where the speaker told an emotional story.
I therefore had 20 phrases for each YouTuber. I adjusted for mechanical error only on the IPs that showed dramatic pitch excursions that the speaker clearly did not take. Using this data, I created bar charts as well as Praat Picture diagrams to display and analyze my results. When they are greeting their respective audiences, Ingrid consistently maintains a higher pitch and wider range when she speaks.
This pattern can be seen in Figure 1 below. All numbers denote F0 frequencies in Hz. Figure 1. A trend can therefore clearly be seen. However, this pattern changes drastically when the YouTubers tell an emotional story later in their respective videos. Figure 2 details this shift. Figure 2. There are two pictures per speaker, and of these two, one is an example of introductory speech while the other shows emotional speech. In Figure 3, Sarah is beginning to introduce herself and the topic of her video; this example shows that her pitch is relatively flat throughout the IP.
This picture contains a much more dramatic pitch range than in Figure 3, showing a contrast between normal introductory and emotional speech. This picture shows that Ingrid uses dramatic pitch in an introductory setting. This pattern reverses once Ingrid begins to tell her emotional story later in the video. In this part, she describes the recent volatility of her emotions as well as how she has been coping.
Her speech range in Figure 6 is markedly smaller than in Figure 5. Recall first that Kulick and Queen both established that a flat intonation pattern and lower pitch is typically indexical of masculinity as well as a stereotypical butch lesbian. In the introduction section, Sarah aligns more with this standard than Ingrid. The former uses a smaller pitch range and lower pitch overall when compared with the latter, which is demonstrated by Figures 1, 3, and 5.
Other aspects of her speech in Figure 3 suggest this as well, such as her use of swearing, which Kulick maintains also denotes a more masculine identity. On the other hand, Ingrid employs a broad pitch range and higher overall pitch when she introduces herself than Sarah does.
Her contrasting style, along with her almost complete lack of swearing throughout the video, seems to indicate that she wishes to convey a more feminine appearance to her viewers. The question stands, then: does this switch in pitch range also correspond to a switch in roles that each YouTuber is attempting to index? Although her emotional pitch shrinks in range, Ingrid uses other feminine variables, such as up-talk, to continue indexing her femininity. Sarah, for example, self-identifies as butch but utilizes stereotypically feminine speech.
This does not, however, automatically undermine her identity. Instead, it reveals an interesting method of conveying emotion: Sarah appears to tap into feminine speech standards when she is discussing negative emotions like vulnerability and discomfort. Her confident, masculine persona that she uses in her introduction is thus set aside in order to convey these emotions through her speech.
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My paper offers a look into this understudied area by connecting previous studies like this with new research into the ways that lesbians utilize pitch to index their identities. My femme lesbian speaker, Ingrid, used introductory pitch to index her femininity through her use of high pitch, wide range, and up-talk. Sarah, my butch speaker, indexed her masculinity by utilizing swearing and lower pitch ranges.
In the emotional setting, however, these trends virtually reversed.
Therefore, my data suggests that lesbian speech is not, despite its stereotypes, a black-and-white affair. Ingrid and Sarah each employ both feminine and masculine speech variables in order to index their identities.